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Dysthymia

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  • ysthymia

    Dysthymia sometimes also called neurotic depression, dysthymic disorder, or chronic depression, is a mood disorder consisting of the same cognitive and physical problems as in depression, with less severe but longer-lasting symptoms. The concept was coined by Robert Spitzer as a replacement for the term "depressive personality" in the late 1970s.

    Disease Overview:

    A milder yet more enduring type of major depression. People with dysthymia may appear to be chronically mildly depressed to the point that it seems to be a part of their personality. When a person finally seeks treatment for dysthymia, it is not uncommon that he/she has struggled with this condition for a number of years.

    Dysthymia often co-occurs with other mental disorders. A "double depression" is the occurrence of episodes of major depression in addition to dysthymia. Switching between periods of dysthymic moods and periods of hypomanic moods is indicative of cyclothymia, which is a mild variant of bipolar disorder.

    In the DSM-5, dysthymia is replaced by persistent depressive disorder. This new condition includes both chronic major depressive disorder and the previous dysthymic disorder. The reason for this change is that there was no evidence for meaningful differences between these two conditions.

    Dysthymia symptoms usually come and go over a period of years, and their intensity can change over time. But typically symptoms don't disappear for more than two months at a time. In general, you may find it hard to be glowing even on happy occasions you may be described as having a gloomy personality.

    Dysthymia symptoms in adults may include: Loss of interest in daily activities, Sadness or feeling down, Hopelessness, Tiredness and lack of energy, Low self-esteem, self-criticism or feeling incapable, Trouble concentrating and trouble making decisions, Irritability or excessive anger, Decreased activity, effectiveness and productivity, Avoidance of social activities, Feelings of guilt and worries over the past, Poor appetite or overeating, Sleep problems. 

  • Epidemiology and Statistics:

    Globally dysthymia occurs in about 105 million people a year (1.5% of the population). It is slightly more common in women (1.8%) than in men (1.3%). The lifetime prevalence rate of dysthymia in community settings appears to range from 3 to 6% in the United States. However, in primary care settings the rate is higher ranging from 5 to 15%. United States prevalence rates tend to be somewhat higher than rates in other countries.It is not seen in brazil.

    Advanced Treatment Methods:

    Treatment is of two types they are: Therapy, Medications and Combination treatment

    Psychotherapy is common and effective for treating dysthymia. Different modalities have been shown to be beneficial. Empirically-based treatments, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy, have been researched to show that through the proper course of treatment, symptoms can dissipate over time. Other forms of talk-therapy (e.g. psychodynamic psychotherapy, interpersonal psychotherapy) have also been said to be effective in treating the disorder. It may be helpful for people diagnosed with dysthymia to develop better coping skills, search for the root cause of symptoms, and work on changing faulty beliefs (e.g., I am worthless).

    In addition to individual psychotherapy, both group psychotherapy and self-help, or support groups, can be an effective line of treatment for dysthymia as well. Through these treatment modalities, issues such as self-esteem, self-confidence, relationship issues/patterns, assertiveness skills, cognitive restructuring, etc., can be worked through and strengthened.

    The combination treatment is done by using antidepressing agents and found to be more effective.

    The other advanced treatment method is Augmentation like: lithium pharmacology, thyroid hormone augmentation, amisulpride, buspirone, bupropion, stimulants, and mirtazapine. Light therapy is a use full and an effective treatment for the person suffering from seasonal effective disorder 

 

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