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Fetal Macrosomia

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  • Fetal macrosomia

    Fetal macrosomia

    The term "fetal macrosomia" is used to describe a newborn who's significantly larger than average. A baby diagnosed with fetal macrosomia has a birth weight of more than 8 pounds, 13 ounces (4,000 grams), regardless of his or her gestational age. About 9 percent of babies born worldwide weigh more than 8 pounds, 13 ounces. However, the risks associated with fetal macrosomia increase greatly when birth weight is more than 9 pounds 15 ounces (4,500 grams). Fetal macrosomia may complicate vaginal delivery and could put the baby at risk of injury during birth. Fetal macrosomia also puts the baby at increased risk of health problems after birth. 

  • Fetal macrosomia

    Signs and symptoms

    Fetal macrosomia is difficult to detect and diagnose during pregnancy. Possible signs and symptoms include:

    • Large fundal height. During prenatal visits, your health care provider might measure your fundal height — the distance from the top of your uterus to your pubic bone. A fundal height that measures larger than expected could be a sign of fetal macrosomia.

    • Excessive amniotic fluid (polyhydramnios). Too much amniotic fluid — the fluid that surrounds and protects a baby during pregnancy — might be a sign that your baby is larger than average. The amount of amniotic fluid reflects your baby's urine output, and a larger baby produces more urine. Some conditions that increase a baby's size might also increase his or her urine output. 

  • Fetal macrosomia

     Treatment

    If your health care provider suspects fetal macrosomia, a vaginal delivery isn't necessarily out of the question. However, you'll need to give birth in a hospital — in case forceps or a vacuum device are needed during delivery or a C-section becomes necessary. Inducing labor — stimulating uterine contractions before labor begins on its own — isn't generally recommended. Research suggests that labor induction doesn't reduce the risk of complications related to fetal macrosomia and might increase the need for a C-section. Your health care provider might recommend a C-section if:

    • You have diabetes. If you had diabetes before pregnancy or you develop gestational diabetes and your health care provider estimates that your baby weighs 9 pounds, 15 ounces (4,500 grams) or more, a C-section might be the safest way to deliver your baby.

    • Your baby weighs 11 pounds or more and you don't have a history of maternal diabetes. If you don't have pre-gestational or gestational diabetes and your health care provider estimates that your baby weighs 11 pounds (5,000 grams) or more, a C-section might be recommended.

    • You delivered a baby whose shoulder got stuck behind your pelvic bone (shoulder dystocia). If you've delivered one baby with shoulder dystocia, you're at increased risk of the problem occurring again. A C-section might be recommended to avoid the risks associated with shoulder dystocia, such as a fractured collarbone.

Expert PPTs

Speaker PPTs

  • Moorkath Nandakumaran
    Hyperglycemia alters maternal-fetal transport kinetics of manganese, chromium and vanadium in diabetic model human placental lobule in vitro : Implications for diabetes mellitu
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  • Yosef Yarden
    Classically, the 3’untranslated region (3’UTR) is that region in eukaryotic protein-coding genes from the translation termination codon to the polyA signal. It is transcribed as an integral part of the mRNA encoded by the gene. However, there exists another kind of RNA, which consists of the 3’UTR alone, without all other elements in mRNA such as 5’UTR and coding region. The importance of independent 3’UTR RNA (referred as I3’UTR) was prompted by results of artificially introducing such RNA species into malignant mammalian cells. Since 1991, we found that the middle part of the 3’UTR of the human nuclear factor for interleukin-6 (NF-IL6) or C/EBP gene exerted tumor suppression effect in vivo. Our subsequent studies showed that transfection of C/EBP 3’UTR led to down-regulation of several genes favorable for malignancy and to up-regulation of some genes favorable for phenotypic reversion. Also, it was shown that the sequences near the termini of the C/EBP 3’UTR were important for its tumor suppression activity. Then, the C/EBP 3’UTR was found to directly inhibit the phosphorylation activity of protein kinase CPKC in SMMC-7721, a hepatocarcinoma cell line. Recently, an AU-rich region in the C/EBP 3’UTR was found also to be responsible for its tumor suppression. Recently we have also found evidence that the independent C/EBP 3’UTR RNA is actually exists in human tissues, such as fetal liver and heart, pregnant uterus, senescent fibroblasts etc. Through 1990’s to 2000’s, world scientists found several 3’UTR RNAs that functioned as artificial independent RNAs in cancer cells and resulted in tumor suppression. Interestingly, majority of genes for these RNAs have promoter-like structures in their 3’UTR regions, although the existence of their transcribed products as independent 3’UTR RNAs is still to be confirmed. Our studies indicate that the independent 3’UTR RNA is a novel non-coding RNA species whose function should be the regulation not of the expression of their original mRNA, but of some essential life activities of the cell as a whole.
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  • Simona Claudia Cambrea
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  • Guinchard Emmanuelle
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  • Dong Zheng
    The protective effect of Astaxanthin on fetal alcohol spectrum disorder in mice
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