Hypotension is the medical term for low blood pressure, meaning the body isn't getting enough blood. With this condition, your heart doesn't adequately circulate blood to various regions of the body. The 'normal' blood pressure range is between 90/60 mmHg and 130/80 mmHg, so if you have hypotension, you'll have a blood pressure below 90/60 mmHg. The top number is the systolic value, which indicates how hard the blood pushes when the heart beats. The bottom number is the diastolic value, which indicates how hard the blood pushes between heart beats. Blood pressure can vary throughout the day, but hypotension generally refers to chronic low blood pressure.
Hypospadias results in a urethral opening located below the tip of the bulbous end of the penis (the glans penis). This opening may be located on the glans, along the shaft of the penis, at the pouch that contains the testicles (scrotum), or in the area between the scrotum and the anus (perineum). The farther the opening is from the tip of the glans, the more likely curvature in the penis (chordee) is present.Mild hypospadias results in a downward spray of the urine stream.Common complications of severe hypospadias include undescended testicles and inguinal hernias (i.e., located in the groin). Other complications include upper urinary tract anomalies and backflow of urine from the ureter to the bladder (vesicoureteral reflux).
Treatment involves surgery to reposition the urethral opening and, if necessary, straighten the shaft of the penis.
A prospective study of 78 children who underwent 84 operations for correction of hypospadias was done. Of these, 54 had a transperineal indwelling Foley catheter for ten days after surgery and 30, a transurethral catheter. Forty-five randomly selected children received prophylactic antimicrobial therapy (sulfamethoxazole), and the remaining 39 children served as controls. Incidence of urinary tract infection was significantly higher in the control group (10 of 39) as compared with the treated group (3 of 45) in spite of the higher incidence of vesicoureteral reflux in the treated group. This suggests that prophylactic antimicrobial treatment may prevent urinary tract infection from prolonged indwelling catheterization.