Pathophysiology: Leptospirosis is a type of bacterial infection spread by animals. It's caused by a strain of bacteria called leptospira. Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease that affects both humans and animals. The early stages of the disease may include high fever, severe headache, muscle pain, chills, redness in the eyes, abdominal pain, jaundice, haemorrhages in skin and mucous membranes (including pulmonary bleeding), vomiting, diarrhoea and a rash. Leptospiral infection in humans causes a range of symptoms, and some infected persons may have no symptoms at all.
Treatment: Effective antibiotics include penicillin G, ampicillin, amoxicillin and Doxycycline. In more severe cases cefotaxime or ceftriaxone should be preferred.Glucose and salt solution infusions may be administered; dialysis is used in serious cases. Elevations of serum potassium are common and if the potassium level gets too high special measures must be taken. Serum phosphorus levels may likewise increase to unacceptable levels due to renal failure.
Statistics: Using the case definition, a total of 121 cases, which consisted of 119 students and 2 staff, were identified, giving an overall attack rate of 6.2%. The attack rate for students was 6.5% (8.2% for morning session and 2.4% for afternoon session) compared to 1.5% for staff only. The age range for the cases was between 6 and 11 years for students and 21 and 24 for staff. The male to female ratio of the cases was 1.25:1 for students and 1:1 for staff.