Lichen sclerosus is an uncommon condition that creates patchy, white skin that's thinner than normal. Lichen sclerosus can affect skin anywhere on your body. But it most often involves skin of the vulva, foreskin of the penis or skin around the anus. IInflammation and altered fibroblast function in the papillary dermis leads to fibrosis of the upper dermis. Genital skin and mucosa are affected most frequently, but extragenital lichen sclerosus does occur, and even rare oral presentations are reported.
The role that hypoxia and ischemia have in the initial cellular and vascular damage is supported by the finding of increased glut-1 and decreased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in affected skin. Most commonly it affects the anogenital region (85-98 %) with presence of skin lesions Extragenital in 15-20% of cases.
In contrast, the involvement of the skin perivulvare and perianal as an extension of the disturbance to the periphery, is more frequently observed ( 25-35 % ) and characterizes constantly advanced forms of extended or LS. The increased frequency in women with a female / male ratio varying from 10:1 to 6:1 approaches the LS from a pathogenic point of view to other pathologies of autoimmune diseases.