Meniere disease is an inner ear disorder that causes vertigo, fluctuating sensorineural hearing loss, and tinnitus. There is no reliable diagnostic test. Vertigo and nausea are treated symptomatically with anticholinergics or benzodiazepines during acute attacks. Diagnostic tools have also changed during the last few decades, reflecting especially the rapid development of technical equipment.
The primary histopathological correlate of Meniere's disease is endolymphatic hydrops. Paparella used the notion of a ?lake, river, and pond? to explain the occurrence of malabsorption of endolymph leading to hydrops . This notion describes the endolymphatic sac as a pond, the vestibular aqueduct as a river, and the endolymphatic fluid space as a lake.
Bernstein (1965) reported 7 families with more than 1 case of episodic vertigo and hearing loss. In 1 family identical female twins and the daughter of one of the twins were affected. Three families also had migraine in certain members.The latest criteria for diagnosing and reporting the results of therapy were published in 1995 by the Committee on Hearing and Equilibrium of the American Academy of Otolaryngology.
The diagnostics of this disease has not been uniform regardless of the several guidelines published by both American and Japanese groups of experts. The diagnostic inaccuracy has naturally led to marked variation of the evaluations concerning the epidemiology of the disease. The reports concerning the effects of various therapeutic modalities also suffer from the ambiguous diagnostic criteria.
Major research on disease:
Surgery and Destructive Treatments of Meniere's Disease.Diuretics and a low-salt diet, the first line of treatment, often decrease the frequency and severity of episodes. For severe or refractory cases, the vestibular system can be ablated with topicalgentamicin surgery.