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Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a bacterium responsible for several difficult-to-treat infections in humans. It is also called oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. MRSA is especially troublesome in hospitals, prisons, and nursing homes, where patients with open wounds, invasive devices, and weakened immune systems are at greater risk of nosocomial infection.
Statistics: A case-control study consisting of 1200 inpatients was conducted in a large tertiary hospital in Singapore between January and December 2006. Results from the generalized structural equation model show that LBO adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 14·9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 8·7-25·5], prior hospitalization (aOR 6·2, 95% CI 3·3-11·5), and cumulative antibiotic exposure (aOR 3·5, 95% CI 2·3-5·3), directly affected HA-MRSA acquisition. LBO accounted for the majority of the effects due to age (100%), immunosuppression (67%), and surgery (96%), and to a lesser extent for male gender (22%).
Both CA-MRSA and HA-MRSA are resistant to traditional anti-staphylococcal beta-lactam antibiotics, such as cephalexin. CA-MRSA has a greater spectrum of antimicrobial susceptibility, including to sulfa drugs & tetracyclines (like doxycycline and minocycline) and clindamycin (for osteomyelitis) but the drug of choice for treating CA-MRSA is now believed to be vancomycin.
Many antibiotics against MRSA are in phase II and phase III clinical trials. It has been reported that maggot therapy to clean out necrotic tissue of MRSA infection has been successful. Studies in diabetic patients reported significantly shorter treatment times than those achieved with standard treatments.