Disease Definition: Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome is a condition that occurs when one or more open sores (ulcers) develop in the rectum. The rectum is a muscular tube that's connected to the end of your colon. Stool passes through the rectum on its way out of the body. Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome is a rare and poorly understood disorder that often occurs in people with chronic constipation. Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome can cause rectal bleeding and straining during bowel movements. Despite its name, sometimes more than one rectal ulcer occurs in solitary rectal ulcer syndrome.
Disease Symptoms: history of a protruding mass, degrees of fecal incontinence which may simply present as a mucous discharge. Constipation, tenesmus and obstructed defecation. A feeling of bearing down, rectal bleeding, diarrhea and erratic bowel habits. Initially, the mass may protrude through the anal canal only during defecation and straining, and spontaneously return afterwards. Spontaneous prolapse that is difficult to keep inside and occurs with walking, prolonged standing, coughing or sneezing (Valsalva maneuvers). A chronically prolapsed rectal tissue may undergo pathological changes such as thickening, ulceration and bleeding. If the prolapse becomes trapped externally outside the anal sphincters, it may become strangulated and there is a risk of perforation. This may require an urgent surgical operation if the prolapse cannot be manually reduced. Applying granulated sugar on the exposed rectal tissue can reduce the edema (swelling).
Disease Treatment: Conservative: A bulk forming agent (e.g. psyllium) or stool softener can also reduce constipation. Biofeedback retraining may be indicated to help the patient avoid straining during defecation. There is limited evidence that hypopressive exercises may be beneficial in mild pelvic organ prolapse. Surgical: Surgical approaches in rectal prolapse can be either perineal or abdominal. A perineal approach (or trans-perineal) refers to surgical access to the rectum and sigmoid colon via incision around the anus and perineum (the area between the genitals and the anus). Laproscopic procedures: Recovery time following laparoscopic surgery is shorter and less painful than following traditional abdominal surgery. Instead of opening the pelvic cavity with a wide incision (laparotomy), a laparoscope (a thin, lighted tube) and surgical instruments are inserted into the pelvic cavity via small incisions. Rectopexy and anterior resection have been performed laparoscopically with good results.
Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS) is a chronic, benign, polymorphic disease of the rectum, the final diagnosis of which is based on histopathologic criteria. Microscopic examination shows glandular changes, oedema and obliteration of the normal architecture in the region of the lamina propria, with muslce fibre penetrating into lamina. Although SRUS pathogenesis is bound up with defecation disorder, it still remains unclear. Disease symptoms are nonspecific--in most cases defecation disorders appear (incomplete defecation, blood and mucus in stool). In some patients emotional disorders can be observed. SRUS treatment is a complex and long-lasting process. Usually it is ineffective or gives only passing effects. SRUS can often be accompanied by rectal prolapse, sometimes a hidden one. In these cases there are more therapeutic possibilities and the prognosis is slightly better. There is no method of choice for SRUS treatment and the prognosis is hard to predict. The treatment should be selected individually, depending on the symptoms intensity and the occurrence of rectal prolapse.