Disease Pathophysiology: Syncope occurs due to global cerebral hypoperfusion. Brain parenchyma depends on adequate blood flow to provide a constant supply of glucose, the primary metabolic substrate. Brain tissue cannot store energy in the form of high-energy phosphates found elsewhere in the body; therefore, a cessation of cerebral perfusion lasting only 3-5 seconds can result in syncope.
Disease Treatment: The cornerstone of treatment is avoidance of triggers known to cause syncope in that person. However, a new development in psychological research has shown that patients show great reductions in vasovagal syncope through exposure-based exercises with therapists if the trigger is mental or emotional, e.g. sight of blood. However, if the trigger is a specific drug, then avoidance is the only treatment.
Statistics: Data from Europe and Japan suggest a similar occurrence rate to the United States, accounting for 1-3.5% of ED visits
Research: Govt of Singapore has taken up programme to research on vasovagal syncope and succeded to get positive results in near future for the better treatment.