In Parkinson`s Disease (PD) patients quality of life depends mostly on sleep disturbances, depression, cognitive impairment and motor disability. Among those, sleep disturbances are one of the most common non-motor symptoms of PD with prevalence that varies from 60-98% of the cases. There are two types of sleep disorder in PD patients: noctural sleep disturbances and excessive daytime sleepiness. Noctural sleep disturbance may be caused by sleep fragmentation, sleep apnea, restless leg syndrome, periodic limb movements, REM sleep behavior disorder, night time hallucinations and nightmares
Sleep disorders can also occur in the early stages of PD, and some of them, as REM sleep movement disorder and excessive day time sleepiness, can even be powerful and prodromal marker for PD and other synucleinopathies, but these non-motor symptoms mostly appear in moderate to severe PD. Dhawan et al. find that nocturia, night-time cramps, dystonia, tremor and somnolence seem to be the important nocturnal disabilities in treatment naive Parkinson disease patient probably due to lack of dopaminergic stimulation while Spanish group of authors find that urinary incontinence, nighttime restlessness, morning fatigue and somnolence are the variables that mostly affect the quality of life in group of patients with moderate to severe Parkinson disease.
Last date updated on June, 2014