Achalasia is a primary esophageal motility disorder characterized by the absence of esophageal peristalsis and impaired relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) in response to swallowing. The particular cause of achalasia is unknown. However, it may usually occur by the degeneration of the esophageal muscles and, more importantly, the nerves that control the muscles. As a result, people suffering with achalasia face difficulty in swallowing food.
In achalasia at least half of the patients, they have the symptoms of lower sphincter resting pressure (which is usually known as the pressure in the lower sphincter when the patient is not swallowing) also is abnormally high. In addition to the abnormalities of the lower sphincter, the muscle lower half to two-thirds of the body of the esophagus show abnormalities in contraction.
Disease statistics: The incidence of achalasia in Spain affects both in men and women equally between the ages of 30-50.In children is 0.8 to 1.9 in 100,000 and the prevalence rate is 5.9 to 8.6 per 100,000 population.more than 10% of patients having symptoms of achalasia are elder than 40 years of age.