AIDS is a syndrome caused by the HIV virus. It is when a person’s immune system is too weak to fight off many infections, and develops when the HIV infection is very advanced. This is the last stage of HIV infection where the body can no longer defend itself and may develop various diseases, infections and if left untreated, death. There is currently no cure for HIV or AIDS. However, with the right treatment and support, people can live long and healthy lives with HIV.
1. It may cause influenza-like illness, tuberculosis, opportunistic infections and tumors, pneumocystis pneumonia, severe weight loss, Kaposi's sarcoma. The time period usually ranges from 6 months (rarely) to 15+ years. HIV infection passes through a series of steps or stages before it turns into AIDS. These stages of infection as outlined in 1993 by the Centers for Disease Control. Seroconversion illness – this occurs in 1 to 6 weeks after acquiring the infection. The feeling is similar to a bout of flu.
2. Asymptomatic infection – After seroconversion, virus levels are low and replication continues slowly. CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte levels are normal. This stage has no symptoms and may persist for years together.
3. Persistent generalised lymphadenopathy (PGL) – The lymph nodes in these patients are swollen for three months or longer and not due to any other cause.
4. Symptomatic infection – This stage manifests with symptoms. In addition, there may be opportunistic infections. This collection of symptoms and signs is referred to as the AIDS-related complex (ARC) and is regarded as a prodrome or precursor to AIDS.
The first cases of HIV-2 infection in Spain were identified in 1988. Through December 1995, 56 HIV-2 infected individuals have been diagnosed. HIV-2 infection is present in Spain at a low rate, and there is little evidence supporting an emerging ongoing transmission outside the population of African immigrants.Spain was one of the countries with the fewest cases.The most promi-nent epidemiological characteristic of HIV infection in Spain is the great importance of transmission between intravenous drug users (IVDUs)Using mortality data from National Institute of Statistics in Spain, we analyzed trends of infectious disease mortality rates in Spain during 1980–2011 to provide information on surveillance and control of infectious diseases. After an epidemic of dependence on illicit drugs, especially heroin, that has lasted for more than 30 years, Spain has learned several important lessons to do with efforts to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with drug dependence.
Spain’s 2008 to 2012 multi-sectoral HIV plan1 puts a strong emphasis on the need for earlier diagnosis (40% of the newly diagnosed have less than 200 CD4 cells/mm3). It suggests that all those involved in HIV in the country need to reconsider the way HIV tests are currently offered in a context of HIV-exceptionalism, but without diminishing individual choice or confidentiality. In Spain, HIV testing can be performed confidentially and free of charge in primary care, and this is the most common location, accounting for three of every ten tests performed. Greater numbers test at private laboratories and during hospital visits than at the anonymous HIV/STI centres. In future, several actions will be required to continue to address this problem in Spain. Some of the most important ones will be the provision of OAMT, needle and syringe exchange programmes, supervised injection, condom dispensation and vaccination against hepatitis B in treatment facilities for people dependent on injected opioids. Just as important will be recognizing the need to diagnose and treat psychiatric comorbidity in patients dependent on illicit drugs and offering them integrated, or at least parallel, treatment in networks for drug dependence and mental health networks.