alexa Acute liver failure | Spain | PDF | PPT| Case Reports | Symptoms | Treatment

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Acute Liver Failure

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  • Acute liver failure

     Acute liver failure (ALF) is a rare syndrome defined by a rapid decline in hepatic function characterised by jaundice, coagulopathy (INR >1.5), and hepatic encephalopathy in patients with no evidence of prior liver disease.The interval from the onset of jaundice to the development of encephalopathy occurs within 24 to 26 weeks and may further classify ALF into categories based on hyperacute, acute, or subacute presentations.Although clinical jaundice is considered a defining feature of ALF, it may not always be present, particularly in hyperacute presentations.

    Typical symptoms

    Yellowing of your skin and eyeballs (jaundice), Pain in your upper right abdomen, Abdominal swelling, Nausea, Vomiting, A general sense of feeling unwell (malaise), Disorientation or confusion, Sleepiness

  • Acute liver failure

     Therapeutic aspects

    Treatments for acute liver failure Acute liver failure treatments may include: Medications to reverse poisoning. Acute liver failure caused by acetaminophen overdose or mushroom poisoning is treated with drugs that can reverse the effects of the toxin and may reduce liver damage. Liver transplant. When acute liver failure can't be reversed, the only treatment may be a liver transplant. During a liver transplant, a surgeon removes your damaged liver and replaces it with a healthy liver from a donor. Treatments for complications Control signs and symptoms you're experiencing and try to prevent complications caused by acute liver failure. This care may include: Relieving pressure caused by excess fluid in the brain. Cerebral edema caused by acute liver failure can increase pressure on your brain. 

  • Acute liver failure

     Statistics

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is a major determinant of its outcome. Acetaminophen (paracetamol) overdose is a leading cause of ALF in some developed countries, whereas in others, such as Spain, it is extremely rare. To analyze the etiology, characteristics, and outcome of ALF in Spain, retrospective analysis of 267 patients whom we observed from 1992 to 2000. Seventeen tertiary-care hospitals with active liver transplantation (LT) programs contributed data. Causes of ALF were viral hepatitis in 98 (37%; hepatitis B virus in 75 patients), unknown in 86 (32%), drug or toxic reactions in 52 (19.5%; acetaminophen overdose in 6), and miscellaneous in 31 (11.6%). Overall survival was 58%. LT was performed in 150 patients, with a survival of 69%. Despite fulfilling criteria, 51 patients were not transplanted because of contraindications; their survival was only 7.8%. Forty-seven (85.5%) of 55 patients without transplant criteria survived. 

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