Capillariasis is a parasitic disease in humans caused by two different species of capillarids: Capillaria hepatica and Capillaria philippinensis. Capillariasis hepatica is transferred through the fecal matter of infected animals and can lead to hepatitis. Capillariasis philippinensis is transferred through ingesting infected small freshwater fish and can lead to diarrhea and emaciation. Capillariasis is a disease caused by nematodes in the Capillaria genus.
The two principal forms of the disease are: 1. Intestinal capillariasis, caused by Capillaria philippinensis 2. Hepatic capillariasis, caused by Capillaria hepatica Intestinal capillariasis: It is a spruelike diarrheal disease caused by infection with Capillaria philippinensis, large number of population built up by internal autoinfection in the intestinal mucosa; characterized by abdominal diarrhea, pain, hypotension, edema, cachexia, hypoproteinemia, cardiac failure and hyporeflexia; intense infection is often manifested as a fulminating disorder that may be fatal. Hepatic capillariasis: It is a serious parasitic zoonosis caused by the tissue-dwelling nematode Capillaria hepatica (C. hepatica). Humans are an accidental host; human infection is acquired by intake of food or water contaminated with infective eggs.
Symptoms in infested humans include weight loss, watery diarrhea, edema, abdominal pain, borborygmus (stomach growling) and impaired levels of potassium and albumin in the blood. In humans, the parasites damage the cells of the intestinal wall. This damage involved with the absorption of nutrients and the maintenance of a proper electrolyte balance. Untreated C. philippinensis infestations are often fatal. Anthelmintics such as mebendazole and albendazole have been reported to remove infestation of humans more effectively than thiabendazole.
Prevention is as simple as avoiding eating minute, whole, uncooked fish. However, in C. philippinensis endemic areas, such dietary habits are common and have been practiced for many generations.
Statistics: As per the statistics the death rate was 2.8%.