alexa Dracunculiasis | Spain | PDF | PPT| Case Reports | Symptoms | Treatment

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Dracunculiasis

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  • Dracunculiasis

    Dracunculiasis (more commonly known as guinea-worm disease) is a crippling parasitic disease caused by Dracunculus medinensis, a long, thread-like worm. It is transmitted exclusively when people drink stagnant water contaminated with parasite-infected water fleas. In the human body, the larvae are released and migrate through the intestinal wall into body tissues, where they develop into adult worms. The female worms move through the person’s subcutaneous tissue, causing intense pain, and eventually emerge through the skin, usually at the feet, producing oedema, a blister and eventually an ulcer, accompanied by fever, nausea, and vomiting. If they come into contact with water as they are emerging, the female worms discharge their larvae, setting in motion a new life cycle. Symptoms: Fever, Local swelling, Local pain, Chronic skin ulcers, Visible worms in skin ulcers, Painful skin bumps, Stinging skin bumps, Nausea, Vomiting, Diarrhea. Statistics: Spain Certified as a dracunculiasis free country. Treatment: There is no vaccine or medicine to treat or prevent Guinea worm disease. Once a Guinea worm begins emerging, the first step is to do a controlled submersion of the affected area in a bucket of water. This causes the worm to discharge many of its larva, making it less infectious. The water is then discarded on the ground far away from any water source. Submersion results in subjective relief of the burning sensation and makes subsequent extraction of the worm easier. To extract the worm, a person must wrap the live worm around a piece of gauze or a stick. The process can be long, taking anywhere from hours to a week. Gently massaging the area around the blister can help loosen the worm, if the infection is identified before an ulcer forms, the worm can also be surgically removed by a trained doctor in a medical facility.

 

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