Dust mite allergy is an allergic reaction to tiny bugs that commonly live in house dust. Signs of dust mite allergy include sneezing and runny nose. Many people with dust mite allergy also experience signs of asthma, such as wheezing and difficulty breathing. Dust mites, close relatives of ticks and spiders, are too small to see without a microscope. Dust mites eat skin cells shed by people, and they thrive in warm, humid environments. In most homes, bedding, upholstered furniture and carpeting provide an ideal environment for dust mites. The first treatment for controlling dust mite allergy is avoiding dust mites as much as possible. When you minimize exposure to dust mites, you should expect fewer allergic reactions or the reactions should be less severe. However, it's impossible to completely eliminate dust mites from environment. You may also need medications to control symptoms.
Antihistamines reduce the production of an immune system chemical that is active in an allergic reaction. These drugs relieve itching, sneezing and runny nose. Over-the-counter antihistamine tablets, such as fexofenadine (Allegra Allergy), loratadine (Alavert, Claritin), cetirizine (Zyrtec Allergy) and others, as well as antihistamine syrups for children, are available. Prescription antihistamines taken as a nasal spray include azelastine (Astelin, Astepro) and olopatadine (Patanase). Corticosteroids delivered as a nasal spray can reduce inflammation and control symptoms of hay fever. These drugs include fluticasone propionate (Flonase), mometasone furoate (Nasonex), triamcinolone (Nasacort AQ), ciclesonide (Omnaris) and others. Nasal corticosteroids provide a low dose of the drug and have a much lower risk of side effects compared with oral corticosteroids.