The study included the 6 LCPD cases and 39 matched controls. The median number of controls per case was 6.5 (range: 4–9). Medication history was available for all patients, either from site records (41 children) and/or from concomitant medication forms from past PACTG clinical trials that the children had been enrolled in (4 children). Complete treatment histories from the time of birth were available for 34 of the 45 children for antiretroviral treatment and 22 for corticosteroid treatment. Before the LCPD diagnosis date for the LCPD cases (index cases), 67% of cases.