Pulmonary valve stenosis is a condition characterized by obstruction to blood flow from the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery. This obstruction is caused by narrowing (stenosis) at one or more points from the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery. The most common form of pulmonary stenosis is obstruction at the valve itself, referred to as pulmonary valvar stenosis.
Patients with mild pulmonary valve stenosis are healthy, can participate in all types of physical activities and sporting events, and lead normal lives. The type of treatment required depends on the type of valve abnormality present. Most commonly, the pulmonary valve is of normal size, and the obstruction is due to fusion along the commissures or lines of valve leaflet opening. This "typical" form of pulmonary valve stenosis responds very nicely to balloon dilation. Balloon dilation valvuloplasty is performed at the time of cardiac catheterization and does not require open-heart surgery.
Statistical analysis on pulmonary valve stenosis in Spain got the result as describing 60 patients (32 TAVRs, 28 TPVRs) were identified. Most TAVR patients (66% male, 80 ± 7 years of age) had a very high-risk profile (mean logistic EuroSCORE: 30.4 ± 14.0%). In TPVR patients (90% male, 19 ± 6 years of age), PVE was more frequent in the stenotic conduit/valve (61%). The median time between TVR and infective endocarditis was 5 months (interquartile range: 2 to 9 months). Typical microorganisms were mostly found with a higher incidence of enterococci after TAVR (34.4%), and Staphylococcus aureus after TPVR (29.4%). As many as 60% of the TAVR-PVE patients were managed medically despite related complications such as local extension, embolism, and heart failure in more than 50% of patients. The valve explantation rate was 57% and 23% in balloon- and self-expandable valves, respectively. In-hospital mortality for TAVR-PVE was 34.4%. Most TPVR-PVE patients (75%) were managed surgically, and in-hospital mortality was 7.1%.