Septic Arthritis is also known as infectious arthritis, bacterial, or fungal arthritis. It is the purulent invasion of a joint by an infectious agent which produces arthritis. The condition is an inflammation of a joint that's caused by infection. Typically, septic arthritis affects one large joint in the body, such as the knee or hip. Less frequently, septic arthritis can affect multiple joints. Septic arthritis is considered a medical emergency. If untreated, it may destroy the joint in a period of days. The infection may also spread to other parts of the body.
Pathophysiology: The major consequence of bacterial invasion is damage to articular cartilage. This may be due to the particular organism's pathologic properties, such as the chondrocyte proteases of S aureus, as well as to the host's polymorphonuclear leukocytes response. The cells stimulate synthesis of cytokines and other inflammatory products, resulting in the hydrolysis of essential collagen and proteoglycans. Infection with N gonorrhoeae induces a relatively mild influx of white blood cells (WBCs) into the joint, explaining, in part, the minimal joint destruction observed with infection with this organism relative to destruction associated with S aureus infection.
Statistics: 1 patients were diagnosed with septic arthritis with a positive culture. Most were diagnosed with monoarticular (85.37%) and monomicrobial (92.68%) arthritis. The most commonly involved joint was the knee (34.15%). The most frequent underlying conditions were hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common pathogen (58.54%). Two cases of chronic arthritis, both caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis were detected. The most frequently used antibiotic combinations were cloxacillin + ciprofloxacin and vancomycin + ciprofloxacin. Surgical treatment included needle aspiration, open joint debridement, or arthroscopic techniques.
Twelve cases had a poor outcome (destructive articular disease), and 3 patients died from staphylococcal sepsis.
|In university hospital in Madrid (Spain), septic arthritis is primarily acute, monoarticular, and monomicrobial; affects higher joints, is caused by S. aureus, and occurs in adult patients with underlying diseases. Outcome is good in most patients, although more than 25% of cases had articular sequels.