Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurological disorder that usually starts between 2 and 15 years and is characterized by the presence of motor and vocal tics. The symptoms persist more than a year and they can vary greatly from person to person another. They gradually decrease into adulthood. 88% of patients with TS suffer other associated disorder like Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). TS is an inherited disorder and there is no known cause. It is estimated that in 5-23% of children tics present before puberty. It is 3-5 times more common in boys than in girls. The risk for first degree for the disorder is 50%, or about 200 times the prevalence in the general population. Although the disorder is genetically transmitted by the same parents, there may be differences in clinical presentation.
Although there's no cure, many people with Tourette syndrome don't need treatment when symptoms aren't troublesome. Psychotherapy, Behavioral Therapy and Deep Brain Stimulation are sufficient for mild symptoms. For moderate to severe symptoms neuroleptics or dopamine antagonists (haloperidol, pimozide, risperidone, quetiapine etc.), alpha-2-adrenergic agonists (Clonidine), serotonin reuptake inhibitors (paroxetine, fluoxetine and fluvoxamine) can be used. Patient and Patient caretakers must be educated about the symptoms as they can affect the social life of the patient. Massage therapies, exercise, chiropractic therapy and acupuncture have been used to help relieve pain or soreness resulting from tics.