Pathophysiology: Viral gastroenteritis is an intestinal infection where inflammation of the stomach and intestines occur from a virus. It is also known as “stomach flu”. This infection may lead to watery diarrhoea, abdominal cramps, nausea or vomiting, and fever. It occurs by contact with a diseased person or by intake of contaminated food or water.Clinicians have categorized it into: Sporadic gastroenteritis, Epidemic gastroenteritis (food-borne or water-borne pathogens), and Acute gastroenteritis.
Disease Statistics: In Spain, little information is available on morbidity and mortality associated with norovirus infection, its distribution among the population, and many of its epidemiological characteristics. The common viral infections are due to involvement of norovirus and rotavirus.
Treatment: Viral gastroenteritis is diagnosed by physical exam such as stool sample to test for virus. There are no specific medical treatments and initially it involves lot of self-care measures. Antibiotics aren’t effective against viruses. The illness may be due to parasitic or bacterial infection. Primary goal is to prevent dehydration by providing enough water and fluids to the diseased body. Food is offered in small amounts. In case of small children, food is supplied intravenously.
Research: Research study was conducted by National Centre of Epidemiology Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain. The study was funded by: Programa de Epidemiología Aplicada de Campo (PEAC), National Centre of Epidemiology (CNE).