Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria
Akujobi Comfort is an Associate professor and Consultant Clinical Microbiologist/ Parasitologist at the College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University in Anambra State Nigeria. She is currently the Head, Department of Medical Microbiology/Parasitology. She is a Fellow of the National Postgraduate Medical College of Nigeria, has published twenty nine (29) articles in peer reviewed journals with contributions in chapters in books and has presented 13 conference papers. She reviews Journal articles for several peer reviewed journals and is currently working on MDR-TB. She is a member of the following professional bodies National Medical and Dental Council of Nigeria, Association of Pathologists of Nigeria, African Society for Laboratory Medicine (ASLM), European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID), International Society for Infectious Disease Physicians, America Society for Microbiology (ASM), Medical Women’s Association of Nigeria (MWAN) and she is currently the State President elect.
Tuberculosis (TB) is the most common opportunistic infection in Human Immuno Deficiency Virus (HIV)- infected patients. Nigeria has HIV prevalence of 3.6% and has the world’s third largest TB burdenMulti Drug resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is tuberculosis that is resistant to at least the first line anti-TB drugs, Rifampicin and Isoniazid 26% of TB patients in Nigeria have HIV co-infection. HIV sero positive and HIV sero-negative TB patients receiving anti kochs therapy from January 2012 to June, 2014 were used in the study. Sputum specimens of suspected TB patients were processed using the Ziehl Neelsen and fluorescent staining techniques then confirmation was done using the Gene Xpert technology by Cepheid. The positive cases are referred to the DOTs clinic where they were commenced on Anti Kocks treatment with the Intensive phase using Rifampicin, Isoniazid, Pyrazinamide, and Ethambutol for two months. Thereafter the continuation phase follow for 4 months. After the intensive phase of therapy, a repeat sputum microscopy was done to determine if the patient still had open TB. In patients who still had open TB, resistance was suspected and their samples were sent for Gene Xpert. Out of 732 diagnosed TB patients seen, six (06) had MDR-TB which is approximately 0.82%. Then of the 6 MDR-TB cases, five (05) of them were HIV negative and one (01) patient was HIV positive. Two of these 6 patients have died giving a mortality rate of 33.3% which is quite high. Efforts should be made to curtail the development and further spread of MDR-TB.
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