Dr. Fouad obtained his DDS, Certificate of Endodontics and MS at the University of Iowa. He served as Assistant then Associate Professor of Endodontology at the University of Connecticut Health Center from 1992 – 2004, and Director of the Division of Endodontics at the University of Maryland from 2004 – 2005. Dr. Fouad has published over 45 published manuscripts and textbook chapters, and edited and co-authored the textbook: Endodontic Microbiology in 2009. He is a Diplomate and Past President of the American Board of Endodontics and an Associate Editor of the Journal of Endodontics. He has lectured widely in the U.S. and internationally, and his research interests include: endodontic molecular microbiology, effectiveness of antibiotic therapy, endodontic treatment outcomes and the pathogenesis and healing of periapical lesions in the host with normal and compromised systemic health.


The concept of the focal infection theory, where an oral infection would be linked with systemic disease started with endodontic infections, about a century ago. A body of knowledge is now available that characterizes the relationship between endodontic pathosis and certain systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and specific other systemic diseases. This information relates to epidemiological findings of association, longitudinal monitoring of patients, case-control studies as well as animal studies showing biological plausibility. This presentation will review this material and provide the audience with the state of the science in this field.

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