Fatima B. J. Sawa
Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Nigeria
Fatima B. J. Sawa is researcher from Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Nigeria.Presently she is working in Crop Production Laboratory of Adamawa State University, Mubi, Nigeria. She has interest in Diversity of Pollen Morphology in Accessions of Sesamum indicum .
An experiment was conducted at the Crop Production Laboratory of Adamawa State University, Mubi, Nigeria. The objectives of the experiment were to evaluate the effectiveness of leaf powders of six plants (Spider plant, Basil, Hyptis, Sugar apple, Desert date and Negro coffee) and a synthetic Pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic Dust) in controlling Tribolium castaneum Herbst on stored millet grain (Variety-Sosat). The Leaf powders of each plant and the Primiphos-methyl were tested at 2.5g, 5.0g and 7.5g of sound millet grain. The experiment was laid in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) and each plant treatment was replicated three times. Although, both the plant products and synthetic treatments were significantly (PL) higher than control, Primiphos-methyl (Actelic dust) at all the tested concentrations caused significantly (P>0.05) higher adult mortality of 3.17 at 22 hours after treatment (HAT) and 1.83 at 72 HAT than all the plant materials with complete suppression of larval development and adult emergence at 15 and 45 days after treatment (DAT), respectively. Among the other treatments, desert date and sugar apple caused adult mortality of 1.00% and 1.29% at 22 and 72 HAT, respectively. This resulted in significant reduction in larval development, adult emergence and grain weight loss at 15, 45 and 63 DAT, respectively. Basil was next to sugar apple and desert date in terms of effectiveness with grain weight loss of 1.98% and grain damage of 22.2%. Although, 5.0g and 7.5g concentrations of plant powders were equally effective in reducing larval development and adult emergence, however, maximum grain protection was obtained with sugar apple in at 7.5g concentration/25g millet grain at 63DAT i.e., adult mortality was highest (1.29%), while loss (2.82%) and grain damage (10.6%) were lowest at this concentration. Therefore, use of sugar apple at the concentration of 7.5g/25 (i.e., 30% w/w) is recommended for maximum protection of millet grain against damage by T. castaneum in storage.
Keywords: Red Flour Beetle (T. castanium), Millet (P. glaucum), Botanical Insecticides, Synthetic Insecticide (Actellic dust).