G Sathis Kumar
Alagappa University, India
G Sathis Kumar (1981), serving as an Adjunct Faculty (Teaching Assistant) in the Department of Economics and Rural Development, Alagappa University, Karaikudi, Tamil Nadu. He has presented more than 42 research papers in the regional, national, and international seminars and conferences. He has published two books, namely, Energy, Environment, and Sustainable Development: Issues and Policies (2009), Environmental Sustainability: Approaches and Policy Options (2010); four articles in reputed journals; and six chapters in edited books. His publications in different spheres of Economics of Environment, Health and Migration are likely to come up in near future.
Being the heart and lungs of the world, forests act as parameters of environment and economy. People of every continentincorporate trees and forests into their culture, religion and mythology. Increasing population, industrialization andurbanization have taken their toll on some of the earth’s forest cover and placed the rest in jeopardy. Thus, the world has been continuously anxious with depletion of forest resources and livelihood concerns of the human who depends on natural resources,including forest resources. The most important anxiety on forests in India are an account of factors such as deforestation, overcutting beyond silviculturally permissible limits, unsustainable fuel and fodder extraction, shifting in pattern and practice ofcultivation, forest fires, over grazing and diversion of forest lands to non-forestry uses. India has taken policy initiatives and action plans for the promotion and conservation of forestry sector which starts from First Forest Policy of India (1894) and Indian Forest Act (1927) during pre-Independence and Wildlife (Protection) Act (1972), Forest (Conservation) Act (1980) and Environment (Protection) Act (1986). Some of the recent policy initiatives of Government of India (GoI) related to conservation of forest resources (biodiversity) are National Forest Policy (1988), Biodiversity Bill (2000), Wildlife Conservation Strategy and National Biodiversity Strategy (2002), National Environment Policy (2004) and so on during post-independence. Further, the National Forestry Policy has also found reflection in the Five-Year Plans (FYPs) of GoI. In this context, the paper highlights the features, achievements and lacunas of major policy initiatives for conservation of forest resources (biodiversity) which are grouped, evaluated and discussed under six categories: (i) legislative and regulatory measures; (ii) policy initiatives; (iii) data and information needs; (iv) forest management; (v) institution and capacity building; and (vi) international cooperation and coordination.