Yuzuncu Yıl University
Gokhan Boran is holding a PhD degree in the field of food science from Cornell University, NY USA and currently working as an assistant professor in Yüzüncü Yıl University, Van Turkey. He is the editor of the book ‘Gelatin: Production, Applications and Health Implications’ and the author of several book chapters and peer reviewed journal articles, mostly on fish oil, seafood processing, and gelatin extraction and quality. He also acts as a reviewer in scientific journals in the field of food science and technology
Chicken processing by-products are not adequately utilized despite their high nutritional value and protein content, in particular. When chicken is processed into skinless and boneless parts, by-products including skin, bone, feather, cartilage, internal organs, head and feet are obtained. These materials are mostly damped into trash causing severe environmental problems or processed into low value products to be used in manufacturing of fertilizers and animal feeds. Chicken bone, in particular, have high amount of protein, calcium, and fat, all of which might be further isolated and converted into high profit bio-materials. An example of that might be gelatin. Although it is currently not a common raw material, chicken bone can be utilized in gelatin manufacturing after an effective separation of impurities to obtain the highest possible yield and quality. When biochemical composition of chicken bone (15.7% protein, 9.5% fat, 14.7% mineral and 57.5% moisture) is considered, the most important impurities impairing the gelatin extraction would be minerals and fats. To isolate the high protein organic part, an effective separation of these impurities is necessary. A study in our laboratory showed that this kind of isolation might result in 57.1% loss in fat and 87.5% loss in mineral with respect to the initial concentrations. Beside, 18.6% of protein and 14.9% of hydroxyproline was lost throughout this isolation process. Trials on gelatin extraction indicated that it was possible to get an overall gelatin yield over 10% with a protein concentration over 70% using a multi-step extraction process. Although very promising results are obtained, further studies are needed to determine the optimum conditions of gelatin extraction from chicken bone in addition to the yield and the quality of gelatin obtained.