Hanan M Al Ghamdi
University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia
Dr. Hanan Mesfer saad ALGhamdi is an assistant professor and Hepatobiliary & Multiorgan Transplant & Laparoscopic Surgeon at University of Dammam & King Fahad Hospital of the University. She has completed her medical education from King Faisal University, college of Medicine & Medical Sciences, Dammam, Saudi Arabia in 1997. She has published more the 10 papers in reputed journals. She is a member of American Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association (AHPBA), American Society of Transplantation (AST), American Association for the Study of Liver Disease (AASLD), Transplantation Society of Australia and New Zealand (TSANZ),International College of Surgery (ICS), International Society of Surgery (ISS) and Saudi Gastroenterology Association; Board member
Calculous biliary disease is a common condition worldwide. In the United States over 750,000 cholecystectomies are performed annually, making gallstone disease one of the most common digestive health problems. With the development of laparoscopic technology in the late 1980s, new techniques for cholecystectomy were introduced. By the early 1990s, laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) had supplanted open cholecystectomy in the operative management of gallbladder stone disease. Unfortunately, the widespread application of LC has led to a concurrent rise in the incidence of major bile duct injuries (BDI). Reports have estimated the incidence of BDI has risen from 0.1 to 0.2% to 0.4 to 0.6% between the era of open cholecystectomy and the age of LC. The management of patients following major BDI is a surgical challenge often requiring the skills of experienced hepatobiliary surgeons at tertiary referral centers. The care of these patients has evolved over the last 14 years by trial and error, as well as by the individual surgeon or institutional philosophy. Collaboration among surgeons, gastroenterologists, and interventional radiologists is imperative in the care of these complex injuries. Despite the frequency of these injuries and their complicated management, the published literature contains multiple studies evaluating the long term outcomes and management in the patients but few substantial reports regarding the early operative management of BDI. In this review we will present the latest data in the recent midline literature and our own experience in a teaching hospital.