Hyo-Ihl Chang has completed his PhD in 1987 from North Carolina State University. He has been professor of College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University since 1988. He was a dean of College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University. He has published more than 80 papers in reputed journals. Now he is a president of the Korean Society for Microbiology and Biotechnology.


Bacteriophages can be operated as highly immunogenic antigens, which could interact with dendritic cells as antigen presenting cells. The bacteriophage ESP2949-1 is a lytic phage of Cronobacter sakazakii which has been isolated from sewage samples. Unlike other phages that were researched as therapeutic agents for many diseases, the ESP2949-1 phage has never been clearly examined for therapeutic purpose. To evaluate its therapeutic effect, the production of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1α, and IL-1β, the expression of the dendritic cell maturation markers CD86 and CD40, and the underlying of NF-κB signaling pathways in murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BM-DCs) in response to ESP2949-1 phage infection were studied. The bacteriophage ESP2949-1 affected the expression of the cell surface molecules and proinflammatory cytokines that are related with the DC maturation processes. Treatment with ESP2949-1 phage also induced the NF-κB-IL12p40 signaling pathways. Our chromatin immunoprecipitation assay(ChIP) showed that p65 could bind the IL12-p40 promoter via translocation to the nucleus which indicates the activation of NF-κB signaling. Furthermore, the ESP2949-1 phage induced the promoter activity of IL-12p40. Our ChIP assay also revealed that p65 was enriched at the IL12-p40 promoter as a direct target of chromatin. The present study demonstrates that the ESP2949-1 phage potently induces DC maturation via immune-enhancement processes.