Irfan Ali Khan obtained his MSc from Aligarh Muslim University and PhD in Botany from Osmania University, Hyderabad, specializing in ‘Genetics and Plant Breeding’. Professor Khan is the Former Director of Nawab Shah Alam Khan Centre For Post Graduate Studies and Research (Affiliated to Osmania University), Anwarul Uloom College Campus, Mallepally, Hyderabad. Presently he is the Managing Director of Ukaaz Publications, Hyderabad. He has published 163 research papers in the reputed National and International Journals and is now on the panel of ‘Experts on Mungbean’ for all countries of the South-East Asia and the Middle East. Professor Khan has been the editor of “Frontiers in Plant Science”, has edited Seventy Four reference books and has co-authored three textbooks with his wife, Professor Atiya Khanum. He is a Fellow of the Indian Society of Genetics (F.I.S.G.). Besides this, he is the Editor-in-Chief of “Annals of Phytomedicine-An International Journal”. Professor Khan is the senior author of the famous textbook “Fundamentals of Biostatistics” by Khan and Khanum which has been released by world renowned agricultural scientist, Dr. M.S. Swaminathan on February 13, 1994 in Hyderabad. This textbook has been included as a textbook and also as reference book in more than 400 universities and research institutes in India and aborad. Besides this, he has given a formula of LSD (Least Significant Difference) with suitable examples which is more or less a substitute for Student’s ‘t’ test to compare to two treatments.


Biostatistics has been defined as the application of the science of statistics to a wide range of problems in biology and medicine. However, the use of biostatistical methods is constantly increasing in sciences which are touching newer horizons every day. The development of theories is closely associated with statistical methods. The doctrine of heredity rests on statistical basis. Therefore, a good understanding of biostatistics is essential as the methods of biostatistics are indispensable tools for the design and analysis of data and in the interpretation of experimental results for dependable conclusions. A preliminary acquaintance will help not only in applying biostatistical methods but also in a better appreciation of their potential value. This article is primarily written to outline the logical basis of the statistical approach to experimental problems, commonly used in agricultural, biological and medical experimentations.
The main purpose of this article is to provide non-biostatisticians with the ability to understand and utilize basic biostatistical concepts and tools and to facilitate their capacity to seek and utilize biostatistical expertise as may be required when conducting their own research or reviewing that done by others. Many statistical techniques are used to analyses data, but learning just a few of the basic and not widely used approaches will allow you to produce meaningful data analysis. These techniques fall into two general categories; descriptive and inferential. They can serve many purposes: to summarize the data in a simple manner, to organize it so it is easier to understand and to use the data to test theories about a larger populations.
Therefore, this topic is divided into the following sections, to understand the applications of different statistical methods and to solve the unsolved problems, arise at different stages while dealing with the subject.

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