St.Petersburg State University
Irina N. Melnikova is a Part-time Professor in the Russian State Hydro-meteorological University (RSHMU) and Baltic State Technical University (BSTU-Voenmech). He has completed Doctor of Sciences in Physics & Mathematics, Main Geophysical Observatory, St. Petersburg. 1982 Candidate of Sciences in Physics & Mathematics, Research Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Moscow; 1972 M.D. Physical Dept. St.-Petersburg State University. Her research interest is in Solar Radiation - Clouds - Atmospheric Aerosol interaction; Atmospheric Pollution; Atmospheric Correction in Remote Sensing Problems; Inverse Problems of Atmospheric Optics; Radiation Budget of the Atmosphere.
Rapid evolution of computers in last decades provides complicating atmospheric models with detailing vertical profiles, accounting for irregular clouds in wide spectral ranges. Numerical algorithms for calculating radiative characteristics with maximal exactness and minimization of uncertainty are usually applied. There are many different computer codes including look-up tables with aerosols characteristics, water vapor, atmosphere conditions in different latitudes, continental and sea conditions, and seasons. Sophisticated approaches for calculating optical parameters are based on scattering and radiative transfer theories. It is very useful for applied problems. However the analysis of separate factors influence on atmospheric radiative characteristics without of considering all possible variations of the whole totality is often necessary for many research problems. For that case the simple models of homogeneous (for the clear atmosphere) and two or three layer atmosphere (for cloudy cases) allow operative varying considered atmospheric optical parameters and provide result that hardly contributes to complicate models and clearly elucidate an interactions between of key atmospheric parameters and radiative characteristics. Two-stream methods of radiative transfer theory ensure an acceptable exactness for calculating integral (over viewing directions) radiative characteristics (irradiance and radiative divergences). Asymptotic formulas are also effective for fast and transparent calculation in case of the cloud atmosphere. A simplest optical model is accepted of the homogeneous clear atmosphere including ozone absorption in UV ranges, molecular scattering, and four variants of the aerosol content at selected shortwave wavelength. In cloud case three variants of extended cloud layer are added. Radiative characteristics together with heating rate are calculated and presented in this study. Results of optical parameters retrieved from observation of solar radiation in the atmosphere and radiative characteristics are compared with simple modelling.
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