Dr. Imaizumi graduated from Nagoya University in 1985. He received the Ph. D. degree from Nagoya University in 1999. Since September 2011, he joined the faculty of Fujita Health University as a professor of Division of Respiratory Medicine and Clinical Allergy. He and his team have continued to work on research for safety and advanced techniques of bronchoscopy.


Background: Newer more advanced techniques in bronchoscopy may require longer procedure times, although a standard protocol for sedation during prolonged bronchoscopy has not yet been defined. We designed a prospective, non-randomized, single-arm study (UMIN trial number 000003971) using patient questionnaires and vital sign monitoring to assess the efficacy and safety of a standardized midazolam dosing protocol based on gender and age for use during bronchoscopy. The loading dose of midazolam was 0.075 mg/kg for men ≤65 years old and women ≤70 and 0.05 mg/kg for men ≥66 years and women ≥71 years, with subsequent doses of one-half the loading dose to be administered every 20 min. The primary endpoint was tolerability and secondary endpoints included anxiety and recall of procedure, willingness to undergo repeat procedure, and complications. Safety was evaluated in terms of monitored changes in blood pressures, ECG, oxygen saturation, and CO2 content in expiration during the procedure. A total of 204 patients were included in the study. Overall, 163 patients (79.9%) reported “no distress” during the procedure, 185 patients (90.7%) reported “no anxiety,” and 175 (85.8%) replied that they would accept a repeat procedure, if necessary. The mean minimum oxygen saturation was 90.2% and the mean maximum expiratory CO2 level was 37.7 mmHg. There were no serious complications related to the protocol. The midazolam dosing protocol examined in this study was safe and effective. It is simple, and it could be easily be translated to routine clinical practice.