Kirti Kain is a fellow of Royal College of Physicians and Higher Education Academy. She completed her MD from the Universityof Leeds, UK.Her research interests include geneticand athero-thrombotic risk factors for prevention of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in UK South Asians in the community. She has made principal contribution towards research & development for effective health service delivery comdis hsd for the chronic diseases element in Tanzania, Nigeria, China and Pakistan. She has published in reputed journals. She promotes UK, South Asian medical students to undertake research.


Both decrease estimated-glomerular-filtration-rate (eGFR)and high-ankle-brachial-index are associated with increased arterial stiffness and cardiovascular-risk in Europeans. South-Asians (a billion of them worldwide) have increased prevalence of severe kidney disease and diabetes but not hypertension and its association with cardiovascular-disease or ankle-brachial-index <0.9 when compared with Europeans. The increase in systolic-ankle-pressures is greater with diabetes in South-Asians. The main outcome measures in the study were Doppler systolic pressures of the left and right posterior-tibial and dorsalis-pedis arteries in 711 South-Asians and 397Europeans with or without GFRr