Kshetrimayum Krishnakanta Singh

Kshetrimayum Krishnakanta Singh

Title: The State of Ponds of Manipur Valley


Dr. K.S. Kshetrimayum is currently serving as an assistant professor at Department of Earth Science, Assam University, Silchar, India. He has a PhD doctorate degree from University of Delhi, India in 2009. Dr. Kshetrimayum has been stretching his area of interest on hydrogeology for the last few years post his PhD degree. He has published few research papers relating to chemical and physical hydrogeology particularly from NW Indian terrains in reputed journals. Currently, Dr. Kshetrimayum is keen to expand his subject knowledge into different terrains.


In Manipuri society, the role of a pond is manifold and makes an absolute contribution to daily life. Yet, ponds have been a victim of serious scientific and social negligence. This article attempts to throw some lights on the past and present state of our ponds from the Manipuri socio-cultural and environmental perspective so as to enhance database on pond studies. The use of ponds in the valley dated back to the 1st Century during Nongdon Lairen Pakhangba (33-154 AD) kingdom. Presently, ponds are used mainly for domestic, irrigation water supply, fish production, recreation and ritual activities. The rapid urbanization, massive increase in population and shrinkage of wetlands cause reduction in the number of pre-existing ponds. Mismanagement and negligence on the treatment of domestic solid waste further deteriorate the quality of pond water. Artificial eutrophication coupled with climate change as it reduces oxygen level and increases acidic level in the pond waters also lead to the extinction of some fish species from the pond water. It is high time to avoid demolishing ponds and rejuvenate them to maintain the age-old socio-cultural relationship it bears. The best will prevail if and only if we pay them the best tributes now and hail their importance with the purest of intentions.