Lauren Malave

Lauren Malave

The Sophie Davis School of Biomedical Education, USA

Title: NMI: Interpreting the data: Neurotransmitters



What if one were to envision a biosensor which is smaller than a human hair, which images several chemical and biologic substances separately within a temporal resolution as low as ano seconds in real time, in vivo, in vitro and in situ in the intact living brain? What if this biosensor provides imaging of specific neurotransmitters at specific oxidation potentials enabling characteristic analog signal processing in the intact living organism using a current resolution range as low as nanoamperes. In controlled studies, this biosensor has been shown to be free of bacterial infection. Moreover, what if this biosensor enables on line imaging without losing steady state concentrations of neurotransmitters and neurochemicals in the living brain? What if this biosensor encompasses hundreds of tested patented formulas for use in selectively imaging a myriad of substances capable of diagnostic use in ameliorating brain disease? What if this biosensor were amenable to regenerative, preconcentrative and conditioning processes with or without performing genetic engineering. What if the biosensor does not produce scarring (glial) formation after brain implantation of the biosensor in patients as reported by NYU Langone pathologists. What if the biosensor is already available for scientific use in humans and animals? The present workshop presents such a unique biosensor technology presenting the tools needed for Neuromolecular Imaging (NMI) and the applications and use of the BRODERICK PROBE®. This biosensor has already met with success in the clinic in the operating room and the images are recorded on line, in vivo, in real time, within the neocortical brain of the epileptic patient during intraoperative surgery. The terminology, NMI, was recently introduced into the literature (Broderick and Pacia, 2005) and is based on, but is different from conventional electrochemistry and conventional voltammetry. NMI allows inventive new formulations for biosensors; these include biochemical classes of lipids, glycolipids, lipoproteins, cerebrosides, ceramides and fatty acids, whether saturated or unsaturated. Detection capabilities include, among others, dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), homovanillic acid (HVA), l-tryptophan (L-TP), norepinephrine, (NE),, ascorbic acid (AA), uric acid (UA) as well as neurotransmitter peptides such as dynorphin and somatostatin.The BRODERICK PROBE® biosensor is further useful for diagnosis and treatment of brain and peripheral diseases due to its molecular recognition imprinting properties. This workshop will cover the tools necessary to learn this patented, proprietary versatile tool for neuroimaging. The indicator biosensor was inserted into the nucleus accumbens under anesthesia. Upon recovery, the subject is studied in real time; this subject was untreated and freely mobile