M R Reddy
Directorate of Poultry Research, India
Reddy obtained his Ph.D. in avian health from Melbourne University, Australia. He is a member of Australian College of Veterinary Scientists in Avian Health (poultry). His research interests include avian disease diagnosis and control, avian tumour viruses, immunomodulation and immunosuppressive diseases
Present study was conducted in order to determine the prevalence of M. gallisepticum (MG) in Indian poultry farms. Choanal cleft swabs and serum samples were obtained from Commercial Layer, Broiler Parent and Commercial Broiler farms located in major poultry growing areas in different geographical regions in the country. The isolation of MG from choanal swabs was performed using standard culture techniques and identified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique. Selected PCR products were sequenced for confirmation. Detection of specific antibodies against MG using the ELISA techniques was performed. Based on the isolation and PCR results, 178 (10.38)out of 1715 samples tested were positive for MG. The prevalence of MG in different regions was 18.64% in Central, 01.00% in East, 1.76% in North and 11.25% in South. The prevalence of MG was 12.45% in Commercial Layers, 09.20% in Broiler Parents and 7.85% in Commercial Broilers. Out of 64 flocks tested, 17 (26.56%) were found positive for MG. Region-wise flocks positive for MG were 31.82% in Central, 10.00% in East, 13.33% in North and 25.93% in South. The prevalence of MG in different categories of flocks was 31.03% in Commercial Layers, 20.00% in Broiler Parent and 10.00% in Commercial Broiler.
Out of 1827 serum samples from a total of 86 flocks, 803 (43.95%) samples were found positive by ELISA. The overall region-wise seroprevalence observed was 49.89% in Central, 56.50% in East, 57.61 % in North and 31.54% in South. The serological data of three types of birds tested was revealed the overall prevalence of 54.39% in Commercial Layers, 39.61% in Broiler Parents, and 20.80% in Commercial Broilers. When evaluating serological data by flock, 67 out of 86 (77.91%) flocks tested were found positive for MG antibody. Region wise flocks positive for MG antibody were 77.27% in Central, 70% in East, 84.62% in North and 75.00% in South. Serology data by flock type revealed prevalence of 91.67% in Commercial Layers, 77.50% in Broiler Parent and 30.00% in Commercial Broiler flocks. This study demonstrated the high prevalence of MG infection in Commercial Layers, Broiler Parents and Commercial Broilers in all major poultry growing areas of the country. Therefore, the high prevalence and wide distribution of MG infection warrants immediate attention and preventive strategies to minimize economic impact of MG infection.
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