Cairo University, Egypt
"Mohamed Shakal is currently working as a Professor in Department of Poultry Diseases Cairo University. His research interest is Poultry diseases, Avian & tumor viruses."
"A surveillance to investigate the different pathogens causing respiratory disease problems was carried out on poultry farms from January-July 2012 in Egypt. The surveillance covered 19 gyptian governorates and different type of chicken farms (28 Layer, 171 Broiler,1 Breeder). IBV recorded the highest incidence rate with 64% of the total farms, with 65% of IB cases were in broiler, where 52% of cases were in layers. Mycoplasma gallisepticum recorded a percent of 45% of total examined farms, with 46.7% of MG cases were in broilers, where 36% were in layers. The highest positivity rate of avian influenza H5N1 was in Menufia Governorate 10 out of 60 cases, while the lowest rate was in Luxor Governorate 0ne case out of 60. The highest positivity rate of avian influenza H9N2 was in Behera Governorate 48 out of 169 cases, while the lowest rate was in Domiatt Governorate 1 case out of 169."