University of Sao Paulo, Brazil
Monique Matsuda is in the scientifi c research at Laboratory of Investigation in Ophthalmology, Medical School of University of Sao Paulo, Brazil since 2009 and is collaborator of Experimental Air Pollution Laboratory-LPAE projects in the area of air pollution effects on health. She pursued her Ph.D. and M.Sc. in Science from the University of Sao Paulo-School Medicine (2010 and 2006), and graduated in Biology from the University of Cruzes Mogi, Sao Paulo (2002). She has an Expertise in Cellular and Molecular Biology, emphasizing the study of matrix extracellular and cell surface proteins in the Ophthalmology area.
Recent experimental data have provided associations between ambient PM2.5 (fi ne particulate matter ≤2.5μm) and propensity to infl ammation, particularly those of the respiratory tract. Similar to respiratory mucosa, the ocular surface is directly exposed to ambient air pollution since only a very thin lacrimal fi lm separates the corneal and conjunctival epithelia from the air pollutants.To investigate the eff ect of ambient air pollution on ocular defense, lacrimal fi lm cytokine levels were evaluated twice (each 15 days) in traffi c professionals (taxi drivers and traffi c controllers, high pollutants exposure, group 1) and workers of a Forest Institute (low pollutants exposure, group 2) from Sao Paulo city. Personal ambient exposure of PM2.5 was 24 hourrecorded by an individual monitor and the tears were collected to measure interleukins (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) levels by multiplex immunoassay. Traffi c professionals presented higher PM2.5 exposure than forest workers (evaluation 1: 41.2±12.1 and 26.9±10 g/m3 and evaluation 2: 37.5±14.5 and 29.1±16.4 g/m3, respectively; p<0.001). Th ere were no diff erences in the average of cytokines between the two groups. However, PM2.5 exposure decreased the IL-5 level in 1.65 pg/ mL (p=0.01) and the IL-10 level in 0.78 pg/mL (p=0.003) for each increment of 50 g/m3 of PM2.5 in the traffi c professionals tears as when analyzed by generalized estimating equation. Th ese results suggest that continuous ambient air pollution exposure modulates the immune response of the defense system which may increase the susceptibility to ocular disorders. Th is study was supported by CNPq 555223/2006-0 and FAPESP 2008/57717-6.