A Working Hypothesis Inc., USA
Paul Frenger is a senior IEEE member, ACM life member and a practicing Physician. He began work in artificial intelligence in 1973. He published 150 bioengineering and computer papers, edited ACM’s SIGForth Newsletter (5 years), was associate editor for ACM Sigplan Notices (13 years) and has 3 computer patents. He has been Chair of the Houston Chapter of the IEEE Computational Intelligence Society (2007-2008, 2010-2011) and has been General Chair of the AIAA / IEEE Workshop on Automation and Robotics at NASA in Houston (2008-2011). He is active in artificial intelligence, robotics, prosthetics, bioengineering and space science.
The author extended his computerized human nervous system function emulator (2000) to create a realistic, complex human narcotic use emulator (HNUE). The basis of this emulator is a biologically-inspired, modular, extensible, open-systems, multi-processor, multitasking program which imitates human physiology: from the brain’s biochemical cellular operations to high level behavioral responses in the whole person. The cortex, brainstem, nucleus accumbens, amygdala, hippocampus, cerebellum, spinal cord, autonomic and peripheral nervous systems, motor, sensory, auto-regulatory, higher cognitive behavioral and emotional functions are provided in the artificial intelligence system. Narcotic emulation uses the computerized postoperative pain / narcotic dosing model of Liu and Northrop (1990), extended by simulated drug tolerance, dependence and withdrawal syndrome effects. The endocannabinoid system is included. Hormonal actions (epinephrine, oxytocin and the sex hormones) have been added, as well as immune system responses, appetite control, sexual desire and mating behavior. Mental disorders such as fear, depression, PTSD, neurosis, psychosis, mental retardation, and various brain injury syndromes are part of the program. Computer emulation of drug abuse illustrates typical addiction problems such as loss of mental acuity, lack of trust, sexual dysfunction, various behavioral disorders and permanent brain and other organ damage (including deranged EKG and EEG tracings). X-HNUE could be extended to demonstrate the adverse effects of many classes of legal and illegal drugs subject to abuse for both educational and research purposes.