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Sivakumar Gowder

Sivakumar Gowder

Qassim University, Saudi Arabia

Title: Cinnamaldehyde (a widely used food flavor): A double edged sword

Biography

Cinnamaldehyde (CNMA) occurs naturally in the leaves and twigs of various species of the genus Cinnamomum. It is used in foods, beverages, medical products, perfumes, cosmetics, soaps, detergents, creams, and lotions. CNMA is often used as a stomachic, an antipyretic and an antiallergic drug and as a tonic in traditional Chinese medicines. Cinnamomum zeylanicum exhibited strong inhibitory effects on osteoclastogenesis. About 180,000 kg of CNMA is consumed each year in foods, 39,000 kg from the use of cinnamon and 141,000 kg deliberately added as a flavor. Thus, CNMA has a high potential for human consumption in the world. CNMA is chemically related to some toxicologically more active compounds like styrene and coumarin, acrolein and crotonaldehyde. Thus, concern about the safety of CNMA was raised. Because of the potential carcinogenic risk to the general population, CNMA was selected by NTP, FEMA and WHO for study. The WHO, which established a temporary ADI for CNMA in 1984, was unable to extend this level because of inadequacies in the toxicity data and later, the committee suggested that the metabolic and pharmacokinetic data of CNMA should be revived. Our previous studies reveal CNMA induced oxidative stress leads to toxicity at the WHO suggested dose level. In the present study, we will evaluate gene expression changes associated with CNMA induced toxicity by using microarray technology. Studies on the expression of genes will be helpful on the therapeutic point of view.

Abstract

Cinnamaldehyde (CNMA) occurs naturally in the leaves and twigs of various species of the genus Cinnamomum. It is used in foods, beverages, medical products, perfumes, cosmetics, soaps, detergents, creams, and lotions. CNMA is often used as a stomachic, an antipyretic and an antiallergic drug and as a tonic in traditional Chinese medicines. Cinnamomum zeylanicum exhibited strong inhibitory effects on osteoclastogenesis. About 180,000 kg of CNMA is consumed each year in foods, 39,000 kg from the use of cinnamon and 141,000 kg deliberately added as a flavor. Thus, CNMA has a high potential for human consumption in the world. CNMA is chemically related to some toxicologically more active compounds like styrene and coumarin, acrolein and crotonaldehyde. Thus, concern about the safety of CNMA was raised. Because of the potential carcinogenic risk to the general population, CNMA was selected by NTP, FEMA and WHO for study. The WHO, which established a temporary ADI for CNMA in 1984, was unable to extend this level because of inadequacies in the toxicity data and later, the committee suggested that the metabolic and pharmacokinetic data of CNMA should be revived. Our previous studies reveal CNMA induced oxidative stress leads to toxicity at the WHO suggested dose level. In the present study, we will evaluate gene expression changes associated with CNMA induced toxicity by using microarray technology. Studies on the expression of genes will be helpful on the therapeutic point of view.

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