Sonia Munir is a doctoral student from Karachi University. She has published more than 8 papers in reputed and impact factor journals and has participated for international conference, Korea, Greece, UK, Oman. She has been four times travel awardees for research support for USA (2008), for conferences (2010, 2012 and 2013).


Blooms of toxic marine dinoflagellates are increasing in frequency, intensity and geographic distribution throughout the world affecting humans and marine life. It is a naturally occurring phenomenon; not caused by human and human cannot control it. Assessment of species composition, occurrence and quantitative distribution of potentially harmful species is a very important part of their ecological studies. Potentially toxic species, fish-killing species, and bloom-forming species were examined which previously not known. Gyrodinium sp. was the major HAB species detected with highest cell densities (48166 cells L-1), Scrippseilla trochoidea (1150 cells L-1), and toxic species Alexandrium ostenfeldii (3000 cells L-1) and Dinophysis caudata (393 cells L-1). Carbon estimates ranged from 0.33-77.42 μg CL-1. About 20-45 μm size dinoflagellates contributed to high carbon biomass from 0.04 to 77.4 μg CL-1 and 45-60 μm had low carbon biomass 0.04 to 6.80 μg CL-1 and cells having 100-150 μm had carbon biomass ranged from 0.01 to 1.86 μg CL-1; cell sizes between 200-450 μm had carbon biomass ranging from 0.19 to 3.0 μg CL-1. In situ growth rates of Prorocentrum species recorded as μ: 1.0–1.10 d–1), Protoperidinium steinii (0.92 d–1), Gonayualax spinifera (0.69 d–1), D. acuminata (2.3 d–1), D. caudata (0.92 d–1), Gyrodinium sp (1.88 d–1), C. furca (1.70 d–1) and Alexandrium ostenfeldii (1.34 d–1). Low growth of S. trochoidea (-1.61 to -0.82 d–1) and Karenia mikimotoi (-2.48 d–1) were observed.