Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, India
Sunil Ghosh completed his PhD from Bidhan Ch. Krishi Viswavidyalaya in 2000 and joined as asstt. Professor in Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Coochbehar, West Bengal in 2002. He is now engaged in teaching at UG and PG level. He is doing his research work on biopesticides and sustainable pest management in agricultural field. He has published more than 30 research papers in reputed journal.
Ladysfinger or Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) is an annual vegetable crop grown in tropical and sub-tropical areas of the globe. In the sub-Himalayan region of north east India the crop is cultivated throughout the year from the 9th to 45th Standard Meteorological Weeks (SMW) which excludes the winter months. The crop is susceptible to various pests of which flea causes heavy damage. The pest was active throughout the growing period with a peak population (5.67 flea beetles/plant) during 26th SMW (last week of June) in the pre-kharif crop. Again population reached higher (3.33/plant) on the 37th SMW (2nd week of September) in the post kharif crop. Sudden fall of population was found during July-August because of heavy rains. Flea beetle population showed significant positive correlation (p=0.05) with average temperature, relative humidity, whereas significant negative correlation with rainfall. This study evaluated the efficacy of azadirachtin, extracts from plants such as Polygonum hydropiper L. floral part and Pongamia pinnata L. fruit, tobacco leaf and garlic against flea beetle and compared with the ability of profenophos. Profenophos was found the most effective treatment for controlling flea beetle, followed by the azadirachtin and Polygonum. It was observed that azadirachtin and extracts of Polygonum plant gave moderate to higher flea beetle control, recording more than 50% mortality and produced higher yield. Azadirachtin and Plant extracts are biopesticides having less or no hazardous effects on human health and environment. Thus they can be incorporated in IPM programmes and organic farming in vegetable cultivation.
Keywords: Seasonal fluctuation, bio-pesticides, vegetable IPM, organic farming