Ahmed Abdelfatah aveterinary doctor , graduated from benha university, faculty of veterinary medicine at 2011 with GPA B+ and now working at pharmacology department , National Research Center (NRC) from 2012 – till now preparing master at pharmacology especially insulin resistance and diabetes , and also an active member at national project funded by NRC about diabetes treatment therapy , Moreover Ahmed Abdelfatah took fullbright brize for youg researcher for innovative idea about hepatocellular carcinoma.


The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of trigonelline (TRIG) on the hepatic complications associated with in high fat high fructose-induced insulin resistance in rats. Insulin resistance was induced by adding high-fat diet (60 kcal/100 kcal saturated fat) and 10% fructose in the drinking water to rats for 8 weeks. Insulin resistant rats were orally treated with either TRIG (50 and 100 mg/kg), sitagliptin (SITA; 10 mg/kg) or the combination TRIG (50 mg/kg) with SITA (10 mg/kg) for 14 consecutive days. Twenty-four hours after the last dose of the drugs, the 18 hours fasting rats were weighed; blood, liver and pancreas samples were isolated. Sera were separated for determination of serum levels of glucose and insulin; for calculating the homeostatic model assessment–insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Liver homogenates were used for assessment of hepatic oxidative stress biomarkers and inflammatory cytokines.. Moreover, hepatic tissues were examined using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) micro-spectroscopy technique for assessment of any molecular changes. Results of the present study revealed that HFHF treated rats was associated with a marked increase in the fasting serum levels of glucose and insulin thus, an increased HOMA-IR. Insulin resistant rats was also associated with a marked increase in the hepatic oxidative stress biomarkers; measured as malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) and the inflammatory cytokine; α-tumor necrosis factor (α-TNF). Oral treatment of insulin resistant rats with TRIG and its combination with SITA significantly decreased HOMA-IR, hepatic MDA, GSH and α-TNF. TRIG and its combination with SITA succeeded to ameliorate the histopathological, cytometery and molecular alteration induced by HFHF. From all the previous results, it can be concluded that TRIG has a beneficial effect on the hepatic complications associated with HFHF-induced insulin resistance in rats due to its hypoglycemic effect and antioxidant potential.