To be updated soon.


From September 2014 to February 2016, a total of 1611 diagnostic coronary angiograms at catheterization laboratory at Benha university hospital were prospectively examined to find out patients with CAE. Those patients were divided into 2 groups: Mixed CAE with obstructive CAD “group 1” and pure CAE “group 2”. Two control groups of age-adjusted subjects were selected consecutively in a 1:1 fashion; one with normal coronaries “group 3” (Pure CAE: normal coronaries) and the other with obstructive CAD only “group 4” (Mixed CAE: obstructive CAD). All recruited subjects underwent carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) level measurements.There were 61 patients with CAE out of 1611 coronary angiograms performed (3.78%). Of those, 35 subjects (57%) showed mixed CAE “group 1” and 26 (47%) showed pure CAE “group 2”. Age and gender-adjusted logistic regression analysis model revealed that significant independent predictors for CAE were: hypertension, smoking, absence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and hs-CRP level > 3 mg/L. Mean carotid IMT was significantly higher in group 2 than group 3 and in group 4 than group 1 (1±0.1 versus 0.4±0.2 mm and 1.4±0.4 versus 1±0.2 mm respectively, p < 0.001 for both). Mean hs-CRP level was significantly higher in group 1 than group 4 and in group 2 than group 3 (7±2 versus 3±0.8 mg/L and 6±2 versus 1±0.6 mg/L respectively, p < 0.001 for both)