Akihiro Nakamura is a Research Fellow at the Centre for Environmental Law, Meiji University, Japan and Adjunct Researcher at University of Tasmania in Australia. He has completed his PhD in Public Policy from the University of Tasmania. His research expertise is in the field of policy instrument analysis in relation to climate change policy.


The Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology deployment has been widely considered as a crucial tool to contribute to reducing the large amount of the global carbon dioxide emissions created by the human society. In order to encourage large-scale deployment and/or commercial uses of CCS, it is essential to consider policy mix options and the best selections, especially for making greater cost efficiency and scaling up the further facilities for CCS deployment. The need for CCS is also varied depending on country and region. Despite the fact that there are many existing discussions about best selection of policy mix associated with selecting effective policy instruments in general, to date there has been little discussion on CCS specifically, due to the lack of experience in the field of industry. In this regard, this article specifically offers a potential analytical framework for policy mix approach to the future CCS deployment in Japan. Throughout this study, we have addressed a number of key instruments, which are considered and implemented in various countries, including the European Union, Canada, the UK, the US and Norway. This study also identified existing and potential policy instruments relevant to Japan, although commercialized CCS has not yet been enacted to date. Accessing relevant literature, we have proposed two major models for policy mix options, which are “Regulatory model for enterprises” and “Public works model for the relevant authorities”. Our project further takes responsibility to conduct analyses for best policy and legal developments for this country.