Amr Hussein Mahmoud Ismail
Cairo University, Egypt
Amr Ismail MBBCh, MSc, MD, MACP, FISQua, FABAM, CHPI, Consultant Dermatologist received on 1998 his Doctorate of Dermatology from Cairo University and Faculty of Medicine, Egypt. Fellow of the American Board of Aesthetic Medicine (ABAM), USA. Fellow of International Society for Quality in Healthcare (ISQua), Ireland. Certified Professional Health Performance Improvement, AIHQ, USA. Member of American College of Health Executives (ACHE), USA. Member of American College of Physicians (ACP).
Hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) or vesicular stomatitis with exanthem is a common childhood condition. The most common causes are non-polio enteroviruses such as Coxsackie virus A16 (CAV 16) and Enterovirus 71 (EV 71). EV 71 is a common ribonucleic acid (RNA) virus that is found worldwide. EV 71 associated HFMD is considered benign and selflimited but complications may include encephalitisand myocarditis. Most deaths occur as a result of pulmonary edema or hemorrhage.
Prevention and Control Measures: Decisions on public health interventions to prevent and control HFMD must be made despite the lack of definitive scientific and technical evidence. During outbreaks, adequate and functioning surveillance systems,improved sanitation and goodhygiene,are important preventive measures. Moreover, promoted network specific for HFMD,improving infection control measures, clinical case management, closure of schools, and supportive legislation to facilitate public health interventions.
Treatment: No specific antiviral agent is available for therapy or prophylaxis of EV 71 infection. Treatment is supportive and focuses on management of complications. Intravenous administration of immune globulin may have a use in preventing severe disease in immunocompromised patients.
Future Considerations: Several vaccines for HFMD are currently under development.
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