Antonio Pangallo, PhD, is a lecturer in organisational psychology at City University London and is a Chartered Occupational Psychologist in the UK. He has worked predominately in the learning and development domain in a wide range of roles across private and public sectors. Antonio has spent considerable time working on a number of projects for International Non-Governmental Organisations including the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Medical Emergency Relief International, and Catholic Agency for Overseas Development. Antonio is a reviewer for the journal Psychological Assessment and has research interests in the field of psychometrics and employee resilience. In particular, Antonio has explored new approaches to the measurement of resilience in human service workers. His most recent research in the palliative care sector resulted in a novel measure of resilience designed to identify those at risk of burnout and stress related illness.


There is considerable disparity in the way resilience is operationalized (e.g. trait, process, outcome) which has highlighted the need for clarity with respect to definition and measurement. The two studies that will be presented attempt to synthesize current thinking around the operationalization and measurement of resilience. The first study presents findings from a systematic review, which includes a content and methodological review of resilience measures. The second study presents findings from an exploratory factor analysis designed to explore how resilience is currently being operationalized by existing scale authors. Findings suggest that the majority of resilience measures are operationalized in very different ways resulting in an eight-factor model of resilience. Implications of this study are that many measures of resilience adequately capture trait resilience but do not assess the interactive elements of a person and their environment. Thus, there is a real need to develop multi-modal assessment methods to overcome the limitations associated with measuring resilience as a global entity.