Benedicta N Nkeh-Chungag
Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha
Benedicta N Nkeh-Chungag, Zoology Department from Water Sisulu University, South Africa observing the anti inflammatory effects and working in the field of Obesity also
Background: Childhood and adolescent obesity is an important predictor of adult cardiometabolic diseases. Current data on age- and gender-specific cardiometabolic risk factors are lacking in the peri-urban Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. However, such information is important in designing innovative strategies to promote healthy living among children and adolescents. The purpose of this pilot study was to compare and determine the extent of cardiometabolic risk factors between samples of lean and overweight/obese adolescent population in a peri-urban community of South Africa. Methods: In this cohort study, 13-17year old male and female adolescents participated in the study. Fasting venous blood samples were obtained for total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride (Trig), high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and blood sugar. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, waist and hip circumferences. Body mass index was calculated. Blood pressure was measured; and metabolic syndrome was assessed using appropriate diagnostic criteria for children and adolescents. Results: All cardiometabolic risk factors were elevated in the overweight/obese learners compared with the lean: low HDL-C (RR = 2.21), elevated TC (RR = 1.23), elevated LDL-C (RR = 1.42), elevated Trig (RR = 1.73), and elevated hs-CRP (RR = 1.9). There were significant atherosclerotic indices among the overweight/obese compared with the lean group: TC/HDL and LDL/HDL (2.99±0.91 vs 2.63±0.48; p=0.016 and 1.73±0.61 vs 1.41±0.46; p= 0.014, respectively). Of the 410 participants, 14.4% had no risk factor for the metabolic syndrome (MS) 21.2% had MS. Participants with MS also had lower adiponectin and serum Mg2+ levels, higher hs-CRP. On the other hand markers of atherosclerosis tended to be higher in males compared to females. Conclusion: There are multiple cardiometabolic risk factors among the overweight/obese compared to lean adolescents in this study. The high proportion of adolescents with MS indicates the importance of school health programs to focus on the promotion physical exercise, healthy eating and keeping appropriate weight.
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