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Biography

Cesar Ruano I. Nieto is Senior Professor in the School of Medical Sciences of the Central University of Ecuador. He obtained the title of MD in the same Faculty and the degree of specialist in Internal Medicine at the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Guayaquil. He studied at the Faculty of Pharmacy of the University of Valencia and the Carlos III Institute. Active member of the Ecuadorian Society of Endocrinology. He has published more than 30 articles in Ecuadorian and foreign Journals. Editor of various scientific journals in Ecuador.

Abstract

Introduction: There is evidence that obesity increases cardiovascular risk and metabolic syndrome (MS) in children, adolescents and adults. Inflammation plays an important role in the development of these diseases. Today, obesity in children and adolescents is a serious public health problem and appears to be the most important cause of insulin resistance, which makes them a risk group for developing metabolic syndrome.
Objective:
To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and associated predisposition factors among students of the first three semesters from the school of Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences of the “Universidad Central Del Ecuador”.
Methods:
We included medical students from the first three semesters of the “Universidad Central Del Ecuador”. The students’ weight, height, blood pressure, waist circumference were measure and BMI were calculated. Furthermore, total cholesterol levels in serum, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, hsCRP, IL-6 were determined and the HOMA-IR was calculated. Results:
883 medical students were studied, with a mean age of 19.3±1.4 where 67% were female. The prevalence of MS was 8.2% (n= 73), 68% were women and 32% men. 29.3% of men presented pre obesity or obesity compared with 23.3% of women (p> 0.05). It was found that waist circumference was preferentially altered in women compared to men (52.3% vs 26.2%) (p <0.05). 39.7% of women had HDL levels below the normal values versus 18.2% in males (p <0.05). The values of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and glucose were within normal parameters. The blood pressure levels were above the normal range in men more than in women (24.4% vs 9.8%) (p <0.05). 19.4% of the total population presented hsCRP values between 1-3 mg / l and 7.4% between 3-9 mg / l. The 7.48% had altered levels of IL-6 (> 3.1 pg / ml) and was found a slight increase in students with overweight, obesity and MS. Insulin resistance was found in both groups, the one with normal BMI as well as in the overweight and obesity group, 15.3% and 14.4% respectively.
Conclusion:
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 8.2% and only 34% of the population presented no risk factors for MS. 1 out of 4 students presented some degree of overweight or obesity. A directly proportional relationship between the presence of risk factors and increased blood pressure was evident. Given the large number of individuals who have at least one risk factor, it is crucial to promote a healthy lifestyle that includes non-pharmacological interventions such as diet and exercise.Inflammation