Charles Nnamdi Ezugwu
Department of Civil Engineering, Federal University, Ndufu-Alike Ikwo, Nigeria
Water found on earth in different quantities, forms and places is used for different purposes. Water in its natural form does not exist in sufficient quantities for its diverse uses. Dams play overarching roles in water resources development through collection of the water in sizeable quantities for its effective utilization for single- or multi-purpose water resources projects. This work presents the use of dam for water supply, irrigation, flood control, hydro power development, recreation, sanitation, navigation, and so on. Sedimentation data were obtained for a typical dam reservoir. Sedimentation rate, trap efficiency of the reservoir and other variables were determined and analyzed. The results showed that sedimentation depletes the storage capacity of reservoirs, and if not controlled will reduce the life of the reservoir and its benefits. Discussed are benefits and negative impacts of dams. Dam disaster was also brought into focus in view of its catastrophic nature, resulting to loss of lives, farmlands and properties. Dam reservoir facilities should be maintained after construction to protect against rapid siltation of the reservoir and end of the benefits.