Divya Raigangar

Divya Raigangar

Manipal University

Title: Evolution of Implant abutment connections – A review


Divya Raigangar completed her graduation in the year 2010 from Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences, Maharashtra, India and gold medalist of the college. She won several honors and medals during her graduation period. She is currently pursuing her post- graduation in Prosthodontics from Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Mangalore, India.


A study of implant to abutment connections is of paramount importance as it is the primary determinant of strength and stability of implant supported restorations which in turn determine the restoration’s prosthetic stability. Traditionally, the Branemark’s external hexagon has been widely used but its significant complications such as abutment screw loosening, rotational misfit at implant abutment interface and microbial penetration have led to modification of external hexagon and the development of internal implant abutment connections. This paper describes the various implant abutment connections that have evolved over time from the traditional external hexagon.